The Prismatic Jane Eyre Project, Phase One
Like many other books, Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre does not exist only in English. It has been translated hundreds of times, by hundreds of translators, into more than fifty languages. Each time, things change: there is loss, no doubt, but also gain and transformation. New languages create new forms of expression; translators see the novel in different lights; latent imaginative and political energies can emerge in each fresh context; the book can strike its varied millions of readers in a myriad of ways.
How can we understand this dizzying textual and linguistic proliferation? What can we learn from studying it? How can we even grasp it, so that it can begin to be understood?
This is what the Prismatic Jane Eyre research project sets out to discover.
The project is led by Matthew Reynolds, but it also involves many other people: you can meet them on our People page.
It is funded by the AHRC as part of the Prismatic Translation strand within the Open World Research Initiative programme in Creative Multilingualism, based at the University of Oxford; and it is hosted by the Oxford Comparative Criticism and Translation Research Centre (OCCT), which is in turn supported by St Anne’s College and the Oxford Research Centre in the Humanities (TORCH).
The project is grounded in a series of theoretical positions which have been developed through the larger Prismatic Translation Project. Translation is creative, not mechanical; it is a matter of growth as much as, or more than, of loss. Translators are writers. Languages are not separate boxes but are rather intermingled areas on the ever-shifting continuum of language variation. These ideas have been expounded in a book, Prismatic Translation (2019): you can read the Introduction and Chapter 1; watch a discussion of the book; and see how the theory underpins the Jane Eyre project in our Ideas pages.
The first thing we have done – Phase One – is to try to track down every translation of Jane Eyre, in any language, and make a list. We have used this information to create a series of interactive maps which allow you to witness the novel’s global proliferation, and give you ways of understanding it. You can explore them on our Maps pages.
We know that the Maps, in their current form, are incomplete and contain errors. For instance, when we made them we were aware of 42 translations into Chinese; now we know of 130; on the other hand, many of what we thought might be independent translations into Russian have turned out to be reprints of earlier texts. If you spot other mistakes, or translations that are missing, please let us know! You can do this using the Contribute button in the sidebar. If you are alerting us to a missing translation, please tell us as much as you can of: title, translator, publisher, place, date, dates of any reprints, and anything else that is interesting about the translation (for instance, if it is censored, or a version for children). As soon as we have enough corrections, we will publish updated maps.
Currently, in Phase Two, we are uploading discussions and animations exploring how words, scenes and metaphors from the novel morph as they move across languages. You can find out more about this approach in our Close Reading pages, and explore what becomes of the first prismatic words, ‘walk’ and ‘wander’, ‘passion’ and ‘plain’ as they are remade and reconfigured in various tongues.
Concurrently, in Phase Three, we are investigating how digital analysis can help us understand larger-scale transformations of the text across languages. You can see the first analyses in our Distant Reading pages.
Phase Four is the publication of an open-access book, linked to the website, which will provide fuller analysis of the material presented here, together with essays by all the researchers. We hope that the book will appear in late 2021 or early 2022.
All the software written by our Digital Humanities researcher Giovanni Pietro Vitali is open source and will be made freely available on our Downloads page.
We are interested in hearing what Jane Eyre, and/or translation, mean to you, and how exploring this site might have changed or interacted with your ideas. If you would like to share this information, please use the Feedback button on the sidebar. If you would like to keep in touch with developments by receiving our blog, please use the Subscribe form in the sidebar. (Your email address will only be used for this purpose, and you will be able to unsubscribe at any time).
We hope you enjoy exploring this site!
Text by Matthew Reynolds
The header image shows the covers of the following editions: Tzeēn Eur, tr. Dora Kominē-Dialetē (Athens: ASTĒR-Papadēmētriou, 1981); Jane Eyre, tr. E. Reguera (Barcelona: Rodegar, 1970); A Paixão de Jane Eyre, tr. Mécia (pseud.) / Simões, João Gaspar (Lisbon: Editorial Inquérito, Lda., 1941); Yatim (The Orphan), tr. Masʻud Barzin (Tehran, Maʻrefat , 1950); Jane Eyre : alma rebelde, tr. M. E. Antonini (Buenos Aires: Acme Agency [Amadeo Bois], 1948); જેન એયર, tr. Hansa C. Patel (Ahmedabad: Navbharat Prakashan Mandir, 1993); Jane Eyre, tr. Tomoji Abe (Kodansha, 1955); Jane Eyre, tr. Göksu Birol (Istanbul: Yason Yayınları, 2015); Sirota iz Lowooda, tr. Božena Legiša-Velikonja (Murska Sobota; Pomurska založba, 1970); Juana Eyre, tr. unknown (Madrid: Revista Literaria Novelas y Cuentos, 1945); جین ایر, tr. Hanieh Chupani (Tehran, Fararuy, 2013); Ja Dziwne losy Jane Eyre, tr. Teresa Świderska (Warszawa: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy 1971) . You can find out more about these and other covers by exploring the Covers Map in our Maps pages. We believe that our representation of these book covers falls under the provision for fair use for the purposes of scholarship and education: if you are a copyright holder and would like to discuss this please contact us.